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Andrew Farmiloe October 2016

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    William Farmiloe[1, 2]

    Male 1766 - 1806  (40 years)

    Personal Information    |    Notes    |    Sources    |    All    |    PDF

    • Name William Farmiloe 
      Born 1766 
      • The year of birth is estimated based on the baptismal and burial records
      Gender Male 
      Baptism 5 Sep 1766  Devizes, Wiltshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location  [3
      • The transcription of the baptismal entry taken from the parish register of St. John, Devizes shows:
        Day: 5 Month: Sep Year: 1766 Forenames: Willm Surname: Farmiloe Fathers forenames: Willm Occupation: Mothers forenames: Betty Birth day: Birth month: Birth year: Abode: Place: Devizes Description: St John County: Wiltshire Country: England Notes:
      Tr Abt 1790  London Find all individuals with events at this location 
      travelled from Gloucestershire to start his new life 
      • The author conjectures that William left Gloucestershire in his early twenties to settle in London.

        In 1777, the "London Flying Diligence" stagecoach operated daily from Gloucester to London starting at 6pm from the Bell Inn and arriving at "Dinner" the following day at the Swan with Two Necks in Lad Lane [now Gresham Street] near Cheapside. The fare was 25s and each passenger was allowed 10 lbs. of luggage.
        [Gloster Journal 1777]

        The Swan with Two Necks was a major coaching Inn; see:

        "In 1780, it was customary for travellers approaching London to remain all night at the Angel Inn, rather than venture after dark to prosecute their journey along ways which were almost equally dangerous from their bad state and their being so greatly infested with thieves. Persons walking from the City to Islington in the evening waited near the end of St. John's Street until a sufficient party had colected who were then escorted by an armed patrole appointed for that purpose".
        [Knights London, vol III p. 130]
      Occupation Between 1793 and 1806  Clerkenwell, Middlesex Find all individuals with events at this location  [4, 5
      • In the register book of apprenticeship indentures, William is described as a "Watchfinisher". Between 1799 and 1806, William is listed as watchmaker in Holden's Directory (see copy entry).

        "The house of a Clerkenwell watchmaker is simply a "private house" in the common English acceptation of the term; having in some cases a workshop constructed in the rear. There are a few of these houses which have an open shop in the grouind story , for the sale of articles connected with watches and jewellery; but in by far the greater number of instances the inscription on the doorplate alone indicates the nature of the business carried on within".
        [Knight's London]
      Residence Between 1793 and 1801  Clerkenwell, Middlesex Find all individuals with events at this location  [6, 7
      Gt. Sutton Street 
      • William appears in the Land Tax asssessments from 1793. Introduced in about 1692, the Land Tax developed into a tax mainly on real property. The government decided on a fixed amount which was to be levied on the country as a whole. Each county was allocated a portion, and then further sub-divided among the lower administrative tiers of the time, ie among the "hundreds" and within each hundred, divided among the parishes. In 1799, for example, William's parish of Clerkenwell was required to raise the sum of £2,159 6 shillings and Sixpence. Throughout the period 1793-1802, William was recorded as occupying property in Great Sutton Street with an annual value of £18; in 1801 and 1802, he was assessed to pay tax of 16 shillings and sixpence. In1793/94, William's immediate neighbours were Peter Higginson, Archibald Blain, Catherine Jones and John Carter. Most of the occupiers in the street paid the same.

        As today, property occupiers were also required to pay rates. The Poor Rate Books also record William as residing at Great Sutton Street from 1793 at no. 34 and from 1795 at no.42. As his neighbours remained the same, the difference in street numbers would seem to have resulted from a re-numbering rather than a move. In 1800-1801 the Rateable value was £18; rates (payable per quarter) were £3 3s. William's neighbours were Thos. Kirkham at no.41 (rv £18), Wm. Kirwood & Son at no.43 (rv £40) and Jane Blain at no.44 (rv £15).
      war 1 Feb 1793  [8
      France declared war against Britain. 
      • Britain was unprepared. The army had only 45,000 men; only one tenth of the battle fleet could put out to sea. The government was concerned with the threat of invasion and the cost of the war. Martello Towers were constructed along the coast; the Militia was strengthened. By 1795, subsidies to allies were running into tens of millions of pounds. Taxation had to be substantially increased. A new tax on income was levied, at 2s in the pound.
      App. eng. 1 Jun 1793  Clerkenwell, Middlesex Find all individuals with events at this location  [9
      engaged an apprentice named James Haves for seven years 
      • A premium of £10 was paid.
      App. eng. 16 Mar 1795  Clerkenwell, Middlesex Find all individuals with events at this location  [10
      engaged Edward Gaudin as an apprentice for seven years. 
      • A premium of £110 was paid.
      tax Jul 1797  [11, 12
      Parliament imposed a tax on the ownership of clocks and watches. 
      • The intention of the Prime Minister, William Pitt, was to raise £200, 000 from this tax. The tax was 10s on each gold watch, 5s on each clock and 2s 6d on each silver or metal watch. Both the Clerkenwell watch trade and the City Clockmakers Company opposed the legislation vigorously. Opposition to the tax was successful; it was repealed on 10 May 1798. The tax nevertheless had a disastrous impact on the trade from which it took a long time to recover. The workers employed in the Clerkenwell watch industry were very hard hit.
      Misc 9 Apr 1798  Clerkenwell, Middlesex Find all individuals with events at this location  [13
      in the locality when an escape from the House of Correction was attempted 
      • On 9 April 1798 The Times reported that Davis, the leader of mutineers, filled a sheet full of oakum to represent a figure which he laid in his bed with a cover drawn over the head. At the time of locking up, he secreted himself in the wc all night. On Sunday morning as soon as the watchmen were off duty, he unbolted the doors and let out his companions. They forced the lock of the inner gate and ascended the wall - nearly 15' high - by means of a rope ladder they had made.
        10 April: five of the mutineers were retaken at Rochester on Friday last.
      Misc 1800  Clerkenwell (St. James) Find all individuals with events at this location  [14
      Clerkenwell Pump 
      • The Churchwardens removed the ancient Clerkenwell pump to the East side of Ray Street, nearly opposite Mutton Hill. A cast iron tablet was fixed with the incsription: "A.D. 1800 William Bound, Joseph Bird, Churchwardens. For the better accommodation of the neighbourhood, this Pump was removed to the spot where it now stands. The spring by which it is supplied is situated four feet eastward; and round it, as History informs us, the parish clerks of london in remote ages annually performed sacred Plays; that custom caused it to be denominated Clerks'-Well, and from which this parish derived its name. The water was greatly esteemed by the prior and Brethren of the order of St John of Jerusalem and the Benedictine Nuns of the neighbourhood".
      Died Mar 1806  Clerkenwell, Middlesex Find all individuals with events at this location  [15
      • Date presumed from burial.
      Buried 2 Mar 1806  Clerkenwell (St. John The Baptist), Middlesex Find all individuals with events at this location  [16
      • The burial entry states William was aged 40 years.
        Burials at St. John’s, Clerkenwell
        William Pink in his History of Clerkenwell recites a grisly story about the fate of bodies buried in the crypt of St. John's Clerkenwell. It seems the crypt was used as a mortuary and between 1738 and 1853, a vast number of coffins were placed there and heaped on top of each other from the floor to the roof. When burials within the 'Metropolis' were no longer permitted, the coffins were removed (under authority of an Order in Council) to the chambers on the north side of the nave of the crypt. After some years, the collection of unburied corpses became 'exceedingly offensive' and many complaints were made. Eventually, under authority both of an Order in Council and a Faculty from the Church Consistory Court, some 325 bodies were removed to the cemetery of the London Necropolis Company at Brookwood, Surrey.
        The burial crisis in London
        The London Necropolis Company was a cemetery operator established by Act of Parliament in 1852 in reaction to the crisis caused by the closure of London's graveyards in 1851.
        From early Christian times, the bodies of the dead in London were buried in and around the local churches. In order to free space for new burials, the practice was to exhume the older bodies and transfer the remains to charnel houses. From the 14th century onwards the charnel houses became overwhelmed, and exhumed remains were scattered where they had been dug up or reburied in pits.
        Despite a serious shortage of burial space in the City of London by the middle of the 1600s, the City Corporation refused to agree to a proposal made by Christopher Wren to use the reconstruction following the 1666 Great Fire of London as an opportunity to cease burials in the churchyards and establish new cemeteries outside the city, even though  the proposal was approved by the King and Parliament. Burials continued at the newly-rebuilt churches.
        By the first half of the 19th century the population of London more than doubled, from a little under a million people in 1801 to almost two and a half million in 1851. Despite this rapid growth in population,the amount of land set aside for use as graveyards remained unchanged at approximately 300 acres, spread across around 200 small sites.The difficulty of digging without disturbing existing graves led to bodies often simply being stacked on top of each other to fit the available space and covered with a layer of earth.
        A Royal Commission established in 1842 to investigate the problem concluded that London's burial grounds had become so overcrowded that it was impossible to dig a new grave without cutting through an existing one. The Commission heard that one cemetery, Spa Fields in Clerkenwell, designed to hold 1,000 bodies, contained 80,000 graves, and that gravediggers throughout London were obliged to shred bodies in order to cram the remains into available grave space.
        In 1848–49 a cholera epidemic killed 14,601 people in London and overwhelmed the burial system completely. Bodies were left stacked in heaps awaiting burial, and even relatively recent graves were exhumed to make way for new burials.
        In the wake of public concerns following the cholera epidemic and the findings of the Royal Commission, the Act to Amend the Laws Concerning the Burial of the Dead in the Metropolis was passed in 1851. Under the Burials Act, new burials were prohibited in what were then the built-up areas of London.
        A ring of new cemeteries had opened outside the built-up area of London, but were only a temporary solution. Edwin Chadwick planned two large new cemeteries just outside the boundaries of the Metropolitan Burial District, while the promoters of the Necropolis scheme planned a single large cemetery far enough from the metropolis so as never to be affected by urban growth, to be reached by railway.
        [Source: Wikipedia].
      Probate 1808  Clerkenwell, Middlesex Find all individuals with events at this location  [17, 18, 19
      • William's death was followed four months later by his widow hanging herself. The Gentleman's Magazine of May 1806 reported that on 29 April:

        29. By hanging herself, Mrs. Furmelowe, of Great Sutton-street, Clerkenwell. Her husband was in the watch-making line, and died insolvent about four months ago, leaving her with three young children. The creditors took the case into consideration, and agreed to take 10s. in the pound, to which she consented; yet melancholy preyed upon her mind so as to cause her to destroy herself.

        Perhaps the creditors were not fully aware of the estate.

        The Estate Duty Register [see copy source] proves William's relationship to sister Ann Western. William died intestate. His estate had some value and his children were still minors. His sister therefore applied to the Prerogative Court of Canterbury (at this time the Ecclesiastical Courts still had jurisdiction over wills and succession).

        Ann swore to the truth of an inventory [copy held] on 31 December 1807. This inventory listed the personal estate [ie excluding any real property - land and buildings], in summary as follows:

        Coach top, bedstead, metal fender, mahogany chest of drawers, further bed, bolster and two pillows, four blankets and a quilt, four post bedstead with mahogany feet feet posts, a wool mattress, bolster and two pillows, four post bottom bed furniture, mahogany chamber table with three drawers, , dressing glass, mahogany pembroke table, six mahogany loose seats, carved chairs, sattin ? hair seats and two elbows to correpond, picture ? glass in gilt frame, plate 28 by 18, 3 feet 3" mahogany pembroke table with a drawer and brass socket ? casters, patent lamp and shade, two japanned candlesticks and a Lamp, two Princes ? metal candlesticks, pocket telescope, three saucepans and covers, a high stand, cinder shovel, 3 flat irons, 2 tea pots, a coffeee pot, two brushes, three drawers and a small desk, a s... banister, meat stand, tin pot, rolling pin, cullander, mahogany pounder box, salt box, brown dish, stone jar, knife and four forks: all sold by public auction by Mr John Ayres Auctioneer and produced after deducting the duty thereon thirty pounds and sixpence

        30 0 6
        Deceased was by trade a watchmaker possessed of sundry work tools valued by Mr Pinck of Jerusalem Court, St John's Square, watchmaker, at nine pounds five shillings 9 5 0
        Deceased possessed of several other articles of household furniture particulars Exhibitant is unable to set forth as she believes they were sold by Mrs Farmiloe the deceased's widow for an unknown sum; Exhibitant declares that she is unable to state the cash in deceased's possession Mrs Farmiloe having taken possession thereof but at the time of her death in April 1806 cash in deceased's house was thirty two pounds three shillings and six pence 32 3 6
        Deceased possessed of sundry linen, silver spoons and a carpet valued at not more than ten pounds

        10 0 0
        Received from Mrs Grimaldi of the Strand, Middlesex, widow, five pounds being part of a debt due to deceased

        5 0 0
        Rest of debt due from Mrs Grimaldi forty four pounds two shillings 44 2 0
        Total £132 11 0

        Ann took the Administratrix' Oath in 1808 (Feb ?) 4. The value of the estate for duty purposes was stated to be under £200 (worth today about £8000). As minor children were involved, the register gives more information than normal:
        "Name and description of the Intestate:
        Farmiloe William of Great Sutton Street in the Parish of Saint James Clerkenwell.
        Name and place of Abode and Degree of Kindred of Administrator or Administratrix:
        Ann Western (Wife of William Western of no. 30 Coppice Row Clerkenwell Timber Merchant) the Aunt and Guardian to Thomas Philip Farmiloe William Farmiloe and George Farmiloe Minors the Children (for their Use and Benefit)" [see copy source].

        Ann's second husband, William Western, together with Abraham Western of no.3 Clerkenwell Steps (?), Timber Merchant and Robert Fiske of no.2 Duke Street West Smithfield, Cabinet Maker, all entered into a bond in the sum of £400 (ie twice the estimated value of William's personal estate, in order to secure to the Court the performance by Ann of her obligations as administratrix of her brother's estate [copy held].
      _UID F0034A29E9CD34489F0CB343FB0F5D4FEF88 
      Person ID I6  Farmiloe
      Last Modified 3 Feb 2013 

      Father William Farmiloe,   b. Abt 1725, Minchinhampton, Gloucestershire Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 1777, Arlingham, Gloucestershire, England Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age ~ 52 years) 
      Mother Betty Edwards,   d. Yes, date unknown 
      Marriage License 27 Oct 1762  Chippenham, Wiltshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location  [20
      • As in the case of Rebecca Keen, William applied for a marriage licence. Strictly speaking under Ecclesiastical Law, he should have applied to the Vicar-General of the Archbishop of Canterbury for a licence, as he resided in the Diocese of Gloucester and his bride lived in a different Diocese, namely Salisbury (Sarum). However, the rules seemed to have been bent or simply ignored, as the Marriage Bond shows. The formality of a bond required both William and William Edwards (cardmaker of Chippenham, presumably his bride's brother, to guarantee to pay each the sum of £100 if it transpired that he was not lawfully entitled to marry. When William wished to marry Rebecca Keen two years earlier in his home Diocese, he merely had to swear the Allegation, a type of affidavit.
      Married 28 Oct 1762  Chippenham, Wiltshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location  [21, 22
      • The marriage was solemnised by the Revd. Christopher Gawthropp Clark and the witnesses were Alice Humphreys and William Edwards.
      Family ID F1  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

      Family Ury Mason,   b. 24 May 1755, Saint Sepulchre, London Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 29 Apr 1806, Clerkenwell, Middlesex Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 50 years) 
      Married 16 Jan 1792  Clerkenwell, Middlesex Find all individuals with events at this location  [23, 24
      • The marriage was solemnised by J.Rooke (?) in presence of Thomas Hebard, Sarah Gatnell (?) and Joseph White (see engraving of St. John's Church, Clerkenwell).

        (For history of parish, see notes 7 April 1998)
       1. Thomas Philip Farmiloe,   b. 1793, Clerkenwell, Middlesex Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. Yes, date unknown
       2. William Farmiloe,   b. 1794, Clerkenwell, Middlesex Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. Yes, date unknown  (Age ~ 2 years)
       3. Mary Ann Farmiloe,   b. 14 Feb 1796, Clerkenwell, Middlesex Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. Yes, date unknown  (Age ~ 0 years)
       4. William Farmiloe,   b. 22 Feb 1798, Clerkenwell, Middlesex Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. Yes, date unknown  (Age ~ 54 years)
       5. George Farmiloe,   b. 9 Feb 1799, Clerkenwell, Middlesex Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 21 Jan 1891, Islington, Middlesex Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 91 years)
      Last Modified 31 Mar 2016 
      Family ID F4  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

    • Notes 
      • The baptismal record almost certainly relates to the adult William Farmiloe. The father is stated to be William Farmiloe and the mother was Betty. The place of baptism, Devizes, is not far from Chippenham where the parents were married. The Identity of parents is proved through the relationship with William's sister Ann WESTERN (qv)

    • Sources 
      1. [S2] GEDCOM file imported on 25 Dec 2003.

      2. [S1] GEDCOM file imported on 4 January 2012.

      3. [S251] Wiltshire FHS (Reliability: 2).

      4. [S9] Holden's Triennial Directory, 1799 and 1805 to 1807.

      5. [S82] Knight's London, vol III p.130.

      6. [S13] Clerkenwell Poor Rates Books, 1795-1801: Gt. Sutton Street.

      7. [S92] Land Tax, MR/PLT 1662-1693 (Reliability: 3).

      8. [S74] Oxford Illustrated History of Britain, p 434 (Reliability: 2).

      9. [S56] Apprentice Books, IR 1/35 spread 217 (Reliability: 3).
        Provided by FONS

      10. [S56] Apprentice Books, IR 1/38 spread 32 (Reliability: 3).
        Provided by FONS.

      11. [S10] London and Middlesex Archaeological Society.
        Monograph on the impact of the 1797 tax on clocks and watches on the London trade

      12. [S175] St. James Clerkenwell Vestry Minute Book (Reliability: 3).

      13. [S61] Times, the, 9 April 1798 p3 (Reliability: 3).

      14. [S87] Topography of London, p 172 (Reliability: 2).

      15. [S151] Gentleman's Magazine, Ixxxvi 1806 i 483 (Reliability: 2).

      16. [S16] St. John's, Clerkenwell PR, P76/JNB mf XO27/033 (Reliability: 3).

      17. [S8] Death Duty Register, IR 26 191: 1808 No. 28 (Reliability: 3).

      18. [S24] Prerogative Court of Canterbury, PROB 6/184 (page 796 in act book) (Reliability: 3).

      19. [S24] Prerogative Court of Canterbury, PROB 46/565 (Reliability: 3).

      20. [S5] Marriage Bond.

      21. [S4] Chippenham PR, No. 169.

      22. [S3] P C Edwards Pedigree.

      23. [S16] St. John's, Clerkenwell PR.

      24. [S12] Clerkenwell, History of.
        Engraving of St.John's church, Clerkenwell; pp. 307, 311