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Andrew Farmiloe October 2016

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    William Farmiloe[1, 2]

    Male Abt 1725 - 1777  (~ 52 years)

    Personal Information    |    Notes    |    Sources    |    All    |    PDF

    • Name William Farmiloe 
      Born Abt 1725  Minchinhampton, Gloucestershire Find all individuals with events at this location 
      • Date presumed from date of baptism.
      Gender Male 
      Baptism 31 Jan 1725  Minchinhampton, Gloucestershire Find all individuals with events at this location  [3
      • Date has been changed to new style (date in register is 1724). This seems to be the correct entry although there is a two year age discrepancy between this date and the age given in the marriage allegation (copy held).
      Possessions From 1744 to 1759  Minchinhampton, Gloucestershire Find all individuals with events at this location  [4
      rate payer 
      • William Farmiloe paid 6s 8d in 1744, 7s 6d in 1750, 9s 6d in 1755 and 19s 3d in 1759, and received back 3s 4d "for the Bull House being void 1/2 a year".
        Thomas Farmiloe paid 7s 4d and received back 4d since he had been overcharged.
      Misc Bef 1750  West Country Find all individuals with events at this location  [5
      social/economic background 
      • Before about 1750, employment was irregular. Most trades were subject to seasonal fluctuations, and to the impact of weather, war, fashion and economic conditions in related industries. West Country clothiers suffered loss of markets due to wars. The rhythm of work was generally charaterised by spurts of industriousness followed by idleness. In the home and small workshops, the worker was in control of the speed and manner of his work. There was a widespread expectation of perquisites. Weavers expected to keep the thrums or warp ends left on the loom when the cloth was cut off. Employers sometimes tried to take advantage of their power over the workers; in the West Country, for example, weavers complained in the early 18th century that the clothiers forced them to accept "truck", ie payments in kind. Another complaint was the employers' claim to deduct from ("bate") wages for faults or underweight. In "The Clothiers' Delight", a popular song of the late 17th centuryin which various methods of exploiting the weavers are gone through, the employers say:

        We'll make the poor Weavers work at a low rate,
        We'll find fault where there's no fault, and so we will bate

        In the first half of the 18th century,, birth rates were about 32 to 35 per thousand and death rates about 28 to 32 per thousand. This compares with [1968] figures of about 17 and 12 per thousand respectively.

        As in the Middle Ages, the routine of life was marked by Christian and traditional feasts and festivals. Such were Plough Monday, Candlemas, Shrovetide, Lady Day, Palm Sunday, Easter, Hocktide, May Day, Whitsuntide, Midsummer, Lammas, Michaelmas, Allhallows and Christmas. Rents were paid at Lady Daty and Michaelmas.

        The almanac was perhaps the most popular book in England for over three and a half centuries, and together with the Bible was the work most likely to be found in a cottage home. An almanac consisted of three parts: the calendar,, including church festivals; general astronomical informatiion and stellsr tables; and the prognostication or forecast of events for the following year, with weather forecasts and information about the tides.
      Misc 1755  Minchinhampton, Gloucestershire Find all individuals with events at this location  [6
      one of the participants in a collection for a fire engine 
      • The Churchwardens' account book lists the contributors in order of amount given (and social order?). The largest amounts were given by members of the Sheppard family, the largest being the considerable sum of £6:6s (perhaps worth c.£400), lesser donations ranging from £3:3s, £2:2s, £1;1s,10s:6d, 5s and below. William Farmiloe is listed as having given 5s (copy held).
      Occupation From 1758  Minchinhampton, Gloucestershire Find all individuals with events at this location  [7, 8, 9, 10, 11
      • On 16 May 1758, the following notice appeared in the Glocester Journal:
        ".. the Trustees of the Charity, or Free-School, of St.Cleve, in the Parish of Minchinhampton..intend to meet at the Lodge-House on Minchinhampton Common on 15th June, in order to elect and appoint a School-Master, to teach Reading, Writing, and Arithmetick or Accounts. No Person will be appointed that is not well qualified, and well recommended. Note, The Salary is an exceeding good House, pleasantly situated, with a good School-House and Gardens, Rent-Free, and the Rents of an Estate adjoining, of the Yearly Value of 42l."
        It seems likely that William applied for and obtained this post, as two years later he was settled enough to marry.
        William gave his occupation in the Marriage Allegations of 1760 and 1762. William Farmiloe is shown to have received from the Churchwardens the sums of £1:10s in 1760 and £3:10s:2d on 19 November 1761.
        William seems to moved to Arlingham some years later, perhaps in 1768. In this year, Mary Yate, the Lady of the Manor, erected a schoolhouse in memory of her son John, who died in 1758 aged 27, the last male heir of the ancient Yate family.
        An example of instructions to an 18th century schoolmaster is held by the author.
      Occupation Between 1760 and 1764  Minchinhampton, Gloucestershire Find all individuals with events at this location  [12
      chosen as Parish Clerk 
      • William Farmiloe, junior, was nominated and chosen as Clerk to the Vestry at this meeting. He was to be paid £2 2s. yearly for the work and the "usual price" for making Parish Indentures and Certificates. There is a later note to the effect that he was to be allowed £3 3s per annum.
        William appeared as a witness to a number of account entries in the period 1758-1763, mainly relating to sales of seats in the parish church. His signature is the same as that on the marriage allegations (qv), except interestingly he was still adding the initials "Jnr." although it seems that his father died in 1752.
      Residence 1760  Minchinhampton, Gloucestershire Find all individuals with events at this location  [13
      • A William Farmiloe is recorded as liable to a land tax assessment in 1760. It seems likely that this William Farmiloe was William the schoolmaster. No other Farmiloes are mentioned in this land tax assessment. The assessment for the first half of the year in Minchinhampton was for a total of £100 2s 2d. William was assessed for 2s 4d. His neighbours were:

        Richard Smith
        John Clift clothworker
        Widow Cornwell as occupier
        Widow Vizard
        Occupiers of Richard Clifford
        Widow Hicks
        Robert Chambers
        Walter Smith
        Most paid the same amount as William. The leading members of the town, Samuel Sheppard and his nephew Phillip Sheppard the Rector, were assessed at the vastly greater sum of £9 7s 11d and £10 2s 6d.
      witness 1 Jul 1760  Minchinhampton, Gloucestershire Find all individuals with events at this location  [14
      a Memorandum of sale of a pew 
      • The Memorandum records the sale by Daniel King to Daniel Day of one seat place in a seat or pew lying in the North West (aisle?) of the parish church which Daniel King has with his wife and "theretofore purchased by her Grandfather Samuel Amofs of Thomas manning in the Year 1685 which seat place the said Daniel King do confirm to the said Daniel day his heirs and assigns for ever for the sum of twenty shillings.."
        Clearly the right to a particular seat was of some importance and value.
        William was paid £1 10s in 1760 and £3 10s 2d in 1761 by the Churchwardens.
        He witnessed further sales of places in 1762 and 1763. The entries seem to be in the same hand as that of William. it may be that he acted as a clerk for the parish.
      Marriage Alleg 12 Aug 1760  Gloucester Find all individuals with events at this location  [15
      • This Allegation related to William's application for a licence to marry Rebecca Keen, a spinster of Minchinhampton, aged 22 years and upwards in the parish church of Minchinhampton (see the copy). A licence permitted a marriage to be solemnised without the need to publish banns in the three weeks prior to the marriage. It was sometimes considered to be smarter to marry in this way. We do not know what became of her, but two years later William married Betty Edwards. William would also have been required to furnish a bond or guarantee; if he did, it has not survived although the bond he provided on his marriage to Betty did survive. Rebecca was probably born in Minchinhampton in 1737, daughter of Nathaniel and Mary Keen.
      Misc Aft 1760  [16
      • The great changes in industrial growth were accompanied by changes on the land. Unlike industry, the increase in agricultural productivity was not significantly dependent on mechanical inventions. From 1730 improved types of plough permitted the use of two horses instead of the traditional team of four to eight oxen. The first threshing machines appeared in the 1780s. But most threshing was done by hand with a flail until the 1830s, and hay and grain were mown and reaped by hand with scythe and sickle for many years after that. Nevertheless, farming remained predominantly an occupation requiring a great amount of human muscle-power. The increase in agricultural output was the result of new techniques of production rather than technological innovation. By a combintion of new types of crop, new rotation systems and improved breeds of stock. It has been estimated that an improvement in agricultural outputof some 40 to 50 per cent was achieved during the 18th century.
        However, these improvements in agricultural techniques could not be implemented to any significant effect without radical changes in the pattern of land ownership. At the beginning of the 18th century, about half the arable land was still cultivated on the open-field system. By 1820, there were only a few counties where this system remained, and by the 1830s it had almost disappeared. This radical change was effected by enclosure. Enclosure was of three types: enclosure of arable land to convert it to pasture for sheep; consolidation of scattered arable strips into one more compact holding; and the enclosure of common land or waste that had previously been uncultivated. The first type of enclosure had been carried out mainly in the 16th century. The second had proceeded spasmodically for many generations, mainly by private agreement among individual land-owners. Where the number of land-owners was small or where they were prepared to sell out their rights, the process could be achieved by private agrement. Where there was opposition,, the prponents of enclosure had to resort to the promotion of a private act of Parliament to give effect to the enlosure of a particular parish or manor. Slightly more than two hundred such Enclosure Acts were passed in the period 1700 to 1760. Betwen 1760 and 1801 there were about two thousand, and a further two thousand wre enacted between 1802 and 1844. The total area of land affected by these enclosures has been estimated to be over six million acres, representing about 25 per cent of all cultivated land.
        In general, while the larger land-owners benefitted from enclosure, the poorer members of the community fared much worse. Smaller land-holders often were obliged to sell out as they could not afford the costs of enclosure, notably the legal fees and cost of fencing. The poorest were in a still worse position; previously, they had been able to scrape a living from a combination of wage labour, a small-holding, and common rights. Enclosure deprived them of the ancient customary rights to graze animals and to take wood for fuel.
      Misc Aft 1760  [17
      Industrial Revolution 
      • The size of the population in the early 18th century was between 5.5 and 6 million for England and Wales with a high birth rate (35 or more live births per 1000 of population) and a death rate only slightly less, so that the rate of natural increase was low. But beginning about 1740, the population began to grow. [The first census in1801 showed that the population of England and Wales had grown to 9 million; by 1831 it was 14 million; and at the end of the century it was 32.5 million. From 1750 the rate of growth acelerated each decade, reaching a peak in the period 1811-21. The population explosion created the basis of the new labour force required for the so-called Industrial Revolution. The term "Industrial Revolution" was introduced in1884; working men wre not aware of living through such a revolution, but were aware of great and suden changes in their way of living.
      Court case 1768  [18
      • This was a petition in Chancery before Lord Camden the Lord Chancellor brought by Benjamin Edwards of Chippenham, Wiltshire, a clothier. [There was a contemporaneous Benjamin Edwards of Chippenham, Wiltshire who was the brother of Betty Edwards, the wife of William Farmiloe. It seems likely therefore that the petitioner was in fact William's own brother-in-law.[
        The petition stated that Edwards in 1763 entered into articles of copartnership for seven years with Adam Gouldney. At that time Edwards owed a debt to William Farmiloe of £29 12s 11d "and a halfpenny or thereabouts". The partners had various dealings and transactions in the way of trade with William Farmiloe, late of Devizes and now of Highworth [Wiltshire] and Schoolmaster in the latter part of the year 1764. The partnership was dissolved by agreement in September 1766. The partnership accounts showed on dissolution a debt due from William Farmiloe of £130 2s 8 1/2 (worth about £10,000 in today's prices). Farmiloe then not "being in circumstances able to pay" the debt, the partners considered it to be a "desparate" debt and agreed to bear the loss equally.. Edwards alleged that Farmiloe "by combining and confederating with the said Adam Gouldney and others unknown" had prevented Edwards from claiming the debt due to Edwards of £36 8s 4d which was made up of Edwards' "moiety" of the debt due from Farmiloe to the partners less the amount of £29 12s 11d due by Edwards to Farmiloe.
        Farmiloe not only failed to pay the amount owed to Edwards despite many applications but he also commenced an action against Edwards in the Court of King's Bench at Westminster for payment of £2000 for goods (worth now more than £150,000) sold and delivered and for another £2000 pretended by Farmiloe to have been lent by Edwards and for "divers" other large sums claimed to be due by Edwards in total £3000. Edwards claimed that he could not defend himself due to the strict rules of [common] Law nor could he [in the King's Bench suit] have the benefit of having the debt due to him and Gouldney on the partnership account set off against the amount claimed by Farmiloe. Edwards claimed that "to give colour to his vexatious and oppressive proceedings" Farmiloe pretended to have paid the partnership debt but he refused to "discover" to Edwards how and when he had paid. Farmiloe claimed that he had drawn up an account of the dealings between him and Edwards for the period 12 October 1764 to 27 May 1765; the balance shown by that account showed according to Farmiloe a balance due to him of £251 3s 61/2d but such pretended account had never been delivered and was "fictitious" and "false".
        The petition went on to recite various dealings and payments not shown by the alleged account including a sum of £81 13s 6d charged for 11 "cloths". The petition prayed for an injunction preventing Farmiloe from proceedings "at Law" [the King's Bench] and for discovery of account books in Farmiloe's possession and a writ of subpoena against Farmiloe and Gouldney.

        William Farmiloe made an Answer to the Petition dated 2 February 1768. He admitted dealings with Edwards in the later part of 1764 and early 1765. William made an account of dealings between 12 October 1764 and 27 May 1765 which showed that £251 3s 6d was due to William. William was informed that at some time in 1765 Edwards entered into articles of copartnership with Adam Gouldney to carry on the business of clothier. William had "large and considerable dealings and concerns" with Edwards and Gouldney during their copartnership from 27 May to 14 August 1765. William prepared an account which showed a balance due to William of £187 11s 4d. William denied owing £130 2s 8 1/2d. He admitted the action in the Court of Kings Bench in Westminster. William maintained that he was in circumstances sufficient to pay his just debts. The Answer was signed by William (signature appears to be the same as that in the Minchinhampton churchwardens' accounts) and by John Medicks (Attorney). Schedules of accounts are appended [copy held].

        There is no record of the judgment and it seems likely that the case did not proceed beyond pleadings.
      Weather 1770  Arlingham, Gloucestershire, England Find all individuals with events at this location  [19
      extremely wet 
      • The parish priest, T Bowen, recorded in his register for 1770:
        "The latter part of this year happen'd to be remarkably wet which caus'd
        the greatest flood in the Severn ever known from whence many of the
        neighbouring Parishes receiv'd considerable Damage; but owing to the
        goodness of the Sea Wall This receiv'd none. The water was so high that
        boats ply'd through many of the streets on Gloster up to the College
        [Rod Neep email 18th May 1998]
      Elector 6 May 1776  GLS Find all individuals with events at this location  [20
      • On 6th May 1776, an election took place to elect a "Representative in Parliament". The candidates were William Bromley Chester and the Hon. George Grenfield Berkeley. Thomas Farmiloe and William Farmiloe, both of Painswick, voted in the election, having property in Minchinhampton which qualified them to vote.
        1696-1868 right to vote - owners of freehold rated @ 40s. pa. All had right to ascertain how every vote had been cast.
      _UID 43E639467914634092D6D8E4EBEDA57BF422 
      Died 1777  Arlingham, Gloucestershire, England Find all individuals with events at this location  [21, 22
      • An advertisement appeared on 17th November in the Glocester Journal inviting applications for the post of schoolmaster in Arlingham.
      Buried 5 Jun 1777  Arlingham, Gloucestershire, England Find all individuals with events at this location  [23, 24
      • The register records that William Farmiloe master of the Free School was buried on this date.
      Person ID I1  Farmiloe
      Last Modified 27 Feb 2015 

      Father William Farmiloe,   b. 1699, Minchinhampton, Gloucestershire Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. Yes, date unknown  (Age ~ 53 years) 
      Mother Dorcas Crump 
      Married 31 Mar 1719  Eastington Find all individuals with events at this location  [25, 26
      Family ID F171  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

      Family Betty Edwards,   d. Yes, date unknown 
      Marriage License 27 Oct 1762  Chippenham, Wiltshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location  [27
      • As in the case of Rebecca Keen, William applied for a marriage licence. Strictly speaking under Ecclesiastical Law, he should have applied to the Vicar-General of the Archbishop of Canterbury for a licence, as he resided in the Diocese of Gloucester and his bride lived in a different Diocese, namely Salisbury (Sarum). However, the rules seemed to have been bent or simply ignored, as the Marriage Bond shows. The formality of a bond required both William and William Edwards (cardmaker of Chippenham, presumably his bride's brother, to guarantee to pay each the sum of £100 if it transpired that he was not lawfully entitled to marry. When William wished to marry Rebecca Keen two years earlier in his home Diocese, he merely had to swear the Allegation, a type of affidavit.
      Married 28 Oct 1762  Chippenham, Wiltshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location  [23, 28
      • The marriage was solemnised by the Revd. Christopher Gawthropp Clark and the witnesses were Alice Humphreys and William Edwards.
       1. Anne Western,   b. 1763,   d. 1843  (Age 80 years)
       2. William Farmiloe,   b. 1766,   d. Mar 1806, Clerkenwell, Middlesex Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 40 years)
      Last Modified 31 Mar 2016 
      Family ID F1  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

    • Notes 
      • The first mention of William as an adult seems to be in the Churchwardens accounts from 1755 when the collection for the fire engine was recorded (see copies held). He appears as a witness to a number of account entries in the period 1758-1763, mainly relating to sales of seats in the parish church. His signature is the same as that on the marriage allegations (qv), except interestingly he adds the initials "Jnr." indicating that his father was indeed also William and that he was then still alive.

        Is he the same William as person #2882?

    • Sources 
      1. [S2] GEDCOM file imported on 25 Dec 2003.

      2. [S1] GEDCOM file imported on 4 January 2012.

      3. [S7] Minchinhampton PR, 1724.

      4. [S90] Minchinhampton Overseers' A/cs, 1744-1759 (Reliability: 3).

      5. [S91] Common People, The (Reliability: 2).

      6. [S28] Minchinhampton Churchwardens' Accounts, P217 CW 2/1, 2/2., 1755.

      7. [S28] Minchinhampton Churchwardens' Accounts, P217 CW 2/1, 2/2., 1760-1761.

      8. [S6] Marriage Allegation, 1760.

      9. [S5] Marriage Bond, 1762.

      10. [S69] Glocester Journal, 16 May 1758.

      11. [S70] Gloucestershire, A New History of, p234.

      12. [S89] Minchinhampton Vestry Minutes, P217a VE/ 2/5 (Reliability: 3).

      13. [S39] Land Tax Assessment: Minchinhampton, Gloucester Library: RR.2052.

      14. [S28] Minchinhampton Churchwardens' Accounts, P217 CW 2/1, 2/2., 1 July 1760 (Reliability: 3).

      15. [S6] Marriage Allegation.

      16. [S91] Common People, The, pp 226-230 (Reliability: 2).

      17. [S91] Common People, The, pp 228-234 (Reliability: 2).

      18. [S97] Court of Chancery, C 12., C 12 345/12 (Reliability: 3).

      19. [S76] Arlingham PR.

      20. [S85] Poll Book - Gloucestershire, Q/REP 6., 1776 Q/REP 6 (Reliability: 3).

      21. [S57] Family Tree #1.

      22. [S69] Glocester Journal, 17 November 1777.

      23. [S3] P C Edwards Pedigree.

      24. [S76] Arlingham PR (Reliability: 3).

      25. [S30] Farmiloe, James: notes, GLS Marriage Register extracts.

      26. [S101] Eastington Parish Register transcript (Reliability: 2).

      27. [S5] Marriage Bond.

      28. [S4] Chippenham PR, No. 169.